President Abraham Lincoln
So I must admit, I'm quite the Abraham Lincoln fanatic, just ask my family lol. I am an avid collector of Lincoln memorabilia and own quite
the collection of books on the greatest President to serve our great country (my humble opinion). I made my own binder of information I gathered on Lincoln and I
will share it's contents on this page. Trust me, you will learn SOMETHING about the great President on this page.
President Abraham Lincoln 16th President of the United States of America
Born -- February 12, 1809, near Hodgenville, Kentucky
Middle Name - None
Parents -- Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln
Siblings -- Sarah (1807-1828), Thomas (1812)
Places Lived -- Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, District of Columbia
Nickname - "Honest Abe"
Appearance -- 6'4", 180 lbs., gray eyes, black hair, size 14 shoe
Wife -- Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882); married 1842
Children -- Robert Todd Lincoln (1843-1926), Edward Baker Lincoln (1846-1850), William Wallace Lincoln (1850-1862), Thomas (Tad) Lincoln (1853-1871)
Property Owned -- Iowa and Illinois (home purchase: 1844, Springfield)
Formal Education -- About one year total
Degrees -- Honorary degrees from Knox College (1860), Columbia (1861), Princeton (1864), Illinois College (2009)
Political Party -- Whig (1832-1856), Republican (1856-1865)
Offices Held -- Elected to Illinois General Assembly in 1834, 1836, 1838, 1840; elected to U.S. House of Representatives in 1846; elected sixteenth President of the U.S. in 1860 and 1864
Vice Presidents -- Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson
Presidential Library -- Springfield, Illinois
Non-Political Work -- Farmhand, clerk, flatboat man, store owner, surveyor, postmaster, lawyer
Law Partners -- John T. Stuart (1837-1841), Stephen T. Logan (1841-1844), William B. Herndon (1844-1865)
Military Experience -- Captain and private, Illinois Militia (1832); Commander-in-Chief (1861-1865)
Patent -- Patent #6469 granted May 22, 1849 for device to lift boats over shoals; only U.S. President to own a patent
Death -- Shot by John Wilkes Booth April 14; died April 15, 1865, Washington, D.C.
Burial -- Oak Ridge Cemetery, Springfield, Illinois; May 4, 1865
Lincoln warned the South in his Inaugural Address: "In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The government will not assail you.... You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it."
Lincoln thought secession illegal, and was willing to use force to defend Federal law and the Union. When Confederate batteries fired on Fort Sumter and forced its surrender, he called on the states for 75,000 volunteers. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy but four remained within the Union. The Civil War had begun.
The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Lincoln had to struggle for a living and for learning. Five months before receiving his party's nomination for President, he sketched his life:
"I was born Feb. 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families--second families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth year, was of a family of the name of Hanks.... My father ... removed from Kentucky to ... Indiana, in my eighth year.... It was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I grew up.... Of course, when I came of age I did not know much. Still somehow, I could read, write, and cipher ... but that was all."
Lincoln made extraordinary efforts to attain knowledge while working on a farm, splitting rails for fences, and keeping store at New Salem, Illinois. He was a captain in the Black Hawk War, spent eight years in the Illinois legislature, and rode the circuit of courts for many years. His law partner said of him, "His ambition was a little engine that knew no rest."
He married Mary Todd, and they had four boys, only one of whom lived to maturity. In 1858 Lincoln ran against Stephen A. Douglas for Senator. He lost the election, but in debating with Douglas he gained a national reputation that won him the Republican nomination for President in 1860.
As President, he built the Republican Party into a strong national organization. Further, he rallied most of the northern Democrats to the Union cause. On January 1, 1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the Confederacy.
Lincoln never let the world forget that the Civil War involved an even larger issue. This he stated most movingly in dedicating the military cemetery at Gettysburg: "that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain--that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom--and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Lincoln won re-election in 1864, as Union military triumphs heralded an end to the war. In his planning for peace, the President was flexible and generous, encouraging Southerners to lay down their arms and join speedily in reunion.
The spirit that guided him was clearly that of his Second Inaugural Address, now inscribed on one wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C.: "With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds.... "
On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington by John Wilkes Booth, an actor, who somehow thought he was helping the South. The opposite was the result, for with Lincoln's death, the possibility of peace with magnanimity died.
The Presidential biographies on WhiteHouse.gov are from "The Presidents of the United States of America," by Frank Freidel and Hugh Sidey. Copyright 2006 by the White House Historical Association.
When the American Civil War began in 1861, President Abraham Lincoln's focus was the preservation of the Union, not the abolition of slavery. The system of human bondage did trouble him, but President Lincoln knew that most Northerners and the Border States would not support the abolition of slavery as the main goal of the War at this time. However, by mid-1862, Lincoln was convinced that abolition was the correct military strategy, and he slowly began to develop a new military strategy that rested on his transforming moral ideals about the institution of slavery.
· On September 22, 1862, after the Union's victory at Antietam, President Lincoln issued a Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
· The Preliminary Proclamation stated that if the Confederate states continued to fight and not rejoin the Union by January 1, 1863, he would officially issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
· Three months later the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect.
· The Emancipation Proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
· The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to states that had seceded from the Union, which left enslavement intact in the Border States of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri.
· The Emancipation Proclamation also exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already been placed under the control of the Union Army.
· The Emancipation Proclamation did not end the system of human bondage, however, it did pave the way for the ratification of the 13th Amendment, which ended the system nationally.
· 48 copies of the Emancipation Proclamation were produced by Charles Leland and George Boker to raise funds for the Union Army at the Philadelphia Great Central Sanitary Fair in June 1864.
· Of the 48 copies, only 26 are known to exist today.
The proclamation reads as follows:
The Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863
By the President of the United States of America:
Whereas, on the twenty-second day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States, containing, among other things, the following, to wit:
"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
"That the Executive will, on the first day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day be, in good faith, represented in the Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such State, and the people thereof, are not then in rebellion against the United States."
Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and in accordance with my purpose so to do publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days, from the day first above mentioned, order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof respectively, are this day in rebellion against the United States, the following, to wit:
Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans) Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth[)], and which excepted parts, are for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.
And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.
And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defense; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.
And I further declare and make known, that such persons of suitable condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in said service.
And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God.
In witness, whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington, this first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty-seventh.
By the President: ABRAHAM LINCOLN
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.
The American Civil War
The Civil War is the central event in America's historical consciousness. While the Revolution of 1776-1783 created the United States, the Civil War of 1861-1865 determined what kind of nation it would be. The war resolved two fundamental questions left unresolved by the revolution: whether the United States was to be a dissolvable confederation of sovereign states or an indivisible nation with a sovereign national government; and whether this nation, born of a declaration that all men were created with an equal right to liberty, would continue to exist as the largest slaveholding country in the world.
Northern victory in the war preserved the United States as one nation and ended the institution of slavery that had divided the country from its beginning. But these achievements came at the cost of 625,000 lives--nearly as many American soldiers as died in all the other wars in which this country has fought combined. The American Civil War was the largest and most destructive conflict in the Western world between the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and the onset of World War I in 1914.
The Civil War started because of uncompromising differences between the free and slave states over the power of the national government to prohibit slavery in the territories that had not yet become states. When Abraham Lincoln won election in 1860 as the first Republican president on a platform pledging to keep slavery out of the territories, seven slave states in the deep South seceded and formed a new nation, the Confederate States of America. The incoming Lincoln administration and most of the Northern people refused to recognize the legitimacy of secession. They feared that it would discredit democracy and create a fatal precedent that would eventually fragment the no-longer United States into several small, squabbling countries.
The event that triggered war came at Fort Sumter in Charleston Bay on April 12, 1861. Claiming this United States fort as their own, the Confederate army on that day opened fire on the federal garrison and forced it to lower the American flag in surrender. Lincoln called out the militia to suppress this "insurrection." Four more slave states seceded and joined the Confederacy. By the end of 1861 nearly a million-armed men confronted each other along a line stretching 1200 miles from Virginia to Missouri. Several battles had already taken place--near Manassas Junction in Virginia, in the mountains of western Virginia where Union victories paved the way for creation of the new state of West Virginia, at Wilson's Creek in Missouri, at Cape Hatteras in North Carolina, and at Port Royal in South Carolina where the Union navy established a base for a blockade to shut off the Confederacy's access to the outside world.
But the real fighting began in 1862. Huge battles like Shiloh in Tennessee, Gaines' Mill, Second Manassas, and Fredericksburg in Virginia, and Antietam in Maryland foreshadowed even bigger campaigns and battles in subsequent years, from Gettysburg in Pennsylvania to Vicksburg on the Mississippi to Chickamauga and Atlanta in Georgia. By 1864 the original Northern goal of a limited war to restore the Union had given way to a new strategy of "total war" to destroy the Old South and its basic institution of slavery and to give the restored Union a "new birth of freedom," as President Lincoln put it in his address at Gettysburg to dedicate a cemetery for Union soldiers killed in the battle there.
For three long years, from 1862 to 1865, Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia staved off invasions and attacks by the Union Army of the Potomac commanded by a series of ineffective generals until Ulysses S. Grant came to Virginia from the Western theater to become general in chief of all Union armies in 1864. After bloody battles at places with names like The Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg, Grant finally brought Lee to bay at Appomattox in April 1865. In the meantime, Union armies and river fleets in the theater of war comprising the slave states west of the Appalachian Mountain chain won a long series of victories over Confederate armies commanded by hapless or unlucky Confederate generals. In 1864-1865 General William Tecumseh Sherman led his army deep into the Confederate heartland of Georgia and South Carolina, destroying their economic infrastructure while General George Thomas virtually destroyed the Confederacy's Army of Tennessee at the battle of Nashville.
By the spring of 1865 all the principal Confederate armies surrendered, and when Union cavalry captured the fleeing Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Georgia on May 10, 1865, resistance collapsed and the war ended. The long, painful process of rebuilding a united nation free of slavery began.
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park is dedicated to preservation, commemoration, and interpretation of the resources associated with the birth and early years of our 16th President and the efforts of the Lincoln Farm Association and others in establishing a lasting tribute to Abraham Lincoln.
The park contains two units located within ten miles of each other. The Birthplace Unit represents Lincoln's humble beginnings with a symbolic cabin enshrined within a neo-classic Memorial Building. The Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek was home to Lincoln during his formative years. Lincoln's experiences as a young boy growing up in Kentucky helped mold him into the man who became the nation's 16th President.
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace Unit
The Birthplace Unit features 116 acres of the Lincoln family's Sinking Spring Farm. An early 19th century Kentucky cabin symbolizes the one in which Abraham Lincoln was born. The cabin is enshrined inside the Memorial Building at the site of his birth. The Birthplace Unit also includes the Sinking Spring, the site of the Boundary Oak tree, and the park's Visitor Center with exhibits and a film that is shown on the hour and half hour.
Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek
"My earliest recollection is of the Knob Creek place," wrote Abraham Lincoln on June 4, 1860. The Lincoln family lived on 30 rented acres of the Knob Creek Farm from the time Abraham was two until he was seven years old when the family left for Indiana. While serving as President, he recalled planting pumpkin seeds in the fields in every other hill and in every other row while others were planting corn. The following day a big rain in the hills flooded the creek and washed away their crops.
Establishment of the Park
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park was established by the Lincoln Farm Association in the early 1900s. The site was donated to the federal government and became a national park on July 17, 1916. At that time, it was called the Abraham Lincoln National Park. The Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek was established November 6, 2001, and is administrated by the Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park. The site was formerly owned by the Howard family and operated as a tourist attraction from 1931 until 2001. In 2001 the site was purchased by the Preservation of Lincoln's Kentucky Heritage Inc. and donated to the National Park Service.
Annual visitation to the park averages 200,000 Visitation is highest in June, July, and August.
LaRue County, Kentucky
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historical Park
2995 Lincoln Farm Road
Hodgenville, Kentucky 42748
TELEPHONE/ FAX and WEB:
(270) 358-3874 Fax
OPERATING HOURS, SEASONS:
Birthplace Unit: Open daily, Memorial Day through Labor Day: 8:00AM - 6:45PM. Remainder of the year: 8:00AM - 4:45PM (ET) Closed Thanksgiving Day, December 25, and January 1. Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek: Open year-round from sunup to sundown. Staffed from Memorial Day through Labor Day. Call for details. Both Units of the park operate on Eastern Time. Closed due to construction.
CLIMATE, RECOMMENDED CLOTHING:
Summers are hot and humid. Winters are moderately cold with variable precipitation. Recommend layers of clothing in fall and winter. Good walking shoes are suggested.
The Birthplace Unit is located approximately 3 miles south of Hodgenville, Kentucky on U.S. 31E and KY 61. The Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek is located 8 miles north of Hodgenville along U.S. 31E.
Nearest airport is in Louisville, KY about 65 miles north of the park. Rental cars are available at the airport or in Elizabethtown, KY about 12 miles for the Park. There is no public transportation in or near the park.
FEES, COSTS, RATES:
No fee is charged.
FACILITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES:
The Birthplace Unit has an information desk, exhibits, a 15-minute captioned orientation film, and a bookstore with educational materials located within the Visitor Center. Self-guided walking tours provide access to the Memorial Building, which enshrines the symbolic cabin. The Sinking Spring, which served as the Lincoln family water supply, and the preserved site of the Boundary Oak Tree, which was used as a boundary marker and survey point for the Lincoln farm, are also accessible. A picnic area, with pavilion, is located on the East side of 31E. The restrooms in the picnic area are accessible.
The Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek is open daily from sunup to sundown and staffed daily from Memorial Day through Labor Day. Visitors have the opportunity to view a historical garden (summers only) and a replica log cabin. Self-guided walks are available in the fields where Abraham once worked and played or hike the Overlook Trail.
The Birthplace Unit has two trails; the Boundary Oak Trail is .3 miles located in the Visitor Center area, the Big Sink Trail is one-mile-long and located in the picnic area on the east side of US 31E. The Boyhood Home Unit at Knob Creek has the Overlook Trail, one and one-half miles long, plus several areas where visitors may walk through the open fields or woods of the farm.
The Birthplace Unit offers guided walking tours between Memorial Day and Labor Day. Tours are self-guided. Educational programs for schools and organizations are available with reservations. Teacher resources include a curriculum packet and/or traveling trunk, both are available by contacting the Birthplace Unit. The park's Junior Ranger Program is available for children ages 6 - 12.
LODGING AND CAMPING FACILITIES:
No commercial services in the park. The nearest lodging or camping is located in Elizabethtown, KY about 12 miles from the park or Bardstown, KY about 30 miles from the park.
Neither site carries any type of food service. Water is available at both units. Restaurants and grocery stores are located within 2 miles of the park in Hodgenville. Picnic sites are available at both units.
OTHER CONCESSIONS, NPS MANAGED VISITOR FACILITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES:
A bookstore with educational materials is located in the park's Birthplace Unit Visitor Center. More than 40 titles are available with special emphasis on Lincoln's childhood, adult life, and his presidency. There are also books about natural history, and official National Park Service handbooks and videos. For additional information about the bookstore call (270) 358-3137.
All park facilities and exhibits are accessible. A wheelchair is available for loan at the Birthplace Unit.
Handicap parking and ramps are available in the park. A wheel chair is available for loan at the Birthplace Unit.
Visitors are invited to tour park grounds, Visitor Center and exhibits, view a 15-minute captioned orientation film, hike and/or picnic in designated areas.
Reservations for schools/educational or other groups should be made two weeks prior to visiting. One month's notice and an application are required for special use permits. For additional information call (270) 358-3137.
BASIC VISIT RECOMMENDATIONS:
One to two hours are recommended to visit and tour the park.
For park closures due to inclement weather call (270) 358-3137.
SURROUNDING LINCOLN RELATED ATTRACTIONS:
The Lincoln Museum and Lincoln Statue in Hodgenville, KY
Lincoln Homestead State Park in Springfield, KY
Lincoln Heritage House and Sarah Bush Johnston Lincoln House, Elizabethtown, KY
Mary Todd Lincoln Home, Lexington, KY
Farmington Historic Home, Louisville, KY
Civil War Museum, Bardstown, KY
1. He was the only president to have a patent: Lincoln invented a device to free steamboats that ran aground.
2. He practiced law without a degree. Lincoln had about 18 months of formal schooling.
3. He wanted women to have the vote in 1836. The future president was a suffragette before it became fashionable.
4. He was a big animal lover, but he wouldn't hunt or fish. If he were alive today, Lincoln would be running an animal shelter.
5. He really was a wrestler. Lincoln was documented as taking part in wrestling bouts. We don't think he wore a mask or had a manager.
6. He lost in his first bid for a presidential ticket. The unknown Lincoln was an unsuccessful vice presidential candidate in 1856 at the Republican convention.
7. He never belonged to an organized church. Lincoln read the Bible daily, but he never joined an organized church in his lifetime.
8. He didn't drink, smoke, or chew. Lincoln was a simple man of tastes, and he never drank in the White House.
9. He didn't have a middle name. Lincoln went through his life with two names.
10. He hated being called Abe. Apparently, he preferred being called by his last name.
11. Lincoln established Thanksgiving as a national holiday.
12. He was the first president born outside of the 13 original states.
13. Lincoln loved to eat oysters.
14. Lincoln's cat ate at the White House dinner table.
15. His dog was named Fido.
16. His cat was named Tabby.
17. His favorite food was fruit.
18. He was also a big fan of chicken casserole.
19. Lincoln was the first president to use the telegraph.
20. He used the telegraph like email to communicate with generals.
21. Lincoln's mother was killed by poisoned milk.
22. Lincoln's life was saved twice when he was young.
23. Grave robbers were foiled in 1876 when they tried to steal Lincoln's body.
24. He was the first president with a beard.
25. Lincoln argued a case before the Supreme Court in 1849 and lost.
26. Lincoln failed in his first business.
27. Lincoln's shoe size was between 12 and 14.
28. His coffin has been opened five times.
29. Lincoln was estranged from his father and didn't attend his funeral.
30. Lincoln didn't play musical instruments.
31. Lincoln served one term in the U.S. House of Representatives.
32. He ran for the U.S. Senate twice and lost.
33. Lincoln won the popular vote in Senate campaign against Douglas but lost the election.
34. Lincoln was shot on Good Friday.
35. Lincoln was photographed with John Wilkes Booth at his second inauguration.
36. There are no direct living descendants of Abraham Lincoln.
37. Booth's brother saved the life of Lincoln's son on a New Jersey train platform.
38. Lincoln was part of séances after his son died in the White House.
39. Lincoln's animals also died in a White House stable fire.
40. Someone shot at Lincoln in 1864 and put a hole in his stovepipe hat.
41. Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated.
42. He was a judge on the circuit court in Illinois.
43. Lincoln defended the son of his most famous wrestling opponent from murder charges.
44. Lincoln battled depression for much of his life.
45. Lincoln was seemingly obsessed with cats.
46. He was set to take part in a duel, but it was cancelled at the last second.
47. Lincoln kept his important documents inside his hat.
48. Lincoln's dog Fido was killed by a drunken assailant a year after Lincoln died.
49. Lincoln's suit was made by Brooks Brothers.
50. Lincoln's guest at Ford's Theater was Ulysses S. Grant, who cancelled at the last second.